Urology

Urology is a specialist surgical field focusing on the diagnosis and surgical and pharmaceutical treatment of the kidneys and urinary tracts in men and women, and diseases of the male genital system. A large part of urology is cancer treatment - conditions requiring surgical treatment include tumours of the kidneys, bladder and prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia, kidney stones, urinary tract injuries and urethral strictures.
The diagnosis and treatment of functional disorders of urination and urinary control in men and women are also part of urology. Other focus areas include the hormonal, functional and reproductive disorders (andrology) of the male genital system. Pediatric surgeons treat urological diseases in children at the Children's Hospital.

The most common and the most demanding urological diseases

The most common endoscopic prosedures are transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.. Another common condition is urological or genital cancer, prostate cancer in particular.  (Add link to urological cancer surgery)

The most demanding urological procedures include radical cystectomy and bladder reconstruction using the patient's intestine, surgical removal of large renal tumours, and the removal of testicular or penile cancer metastases to the back of the abdominal cavity. Specialist skills are also required in reconstructive urinary tract surgery, treatment of urethral strictures, artificial urinary sphincter operations, sex reassignment operations, laparoscopic operations and robot-assisted surgery.

Emergencies

The most common urological emergencies include kidney stones, severe inflammation of the male urinary tract, urinary retention, bleeding in the urinary tract, and renal, urinary tract and genital injuries.

Typical forms of treatment

In urology, a large number of operations are performed using endoscopy (urethroscopy, laparosccopy). The most common procedure is cytoscopy on benign prostatic hyperplasia, typically using TURP (transurethral resection of the prostate) or PVP (photoselective vaporization of the prostate). In HUCH, the vast majority (>90%) of the approximately 250 prostectomies performed to eliminate prostate cancer are robotic-assisted endoscopic surgeries.

Traditional open surgeries are performed to surgically treat large renal tumors and muscle invasive bladder cancer, for example.

In addition to ureteroscopy and open surgery, kidney stones are treated by using extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL).

Drug therapy is a common form of treatment in the majority of urological diseases.


Urology in the HUS area and HUCH specialist medical care area

In the HUS area, urology patients are diagnosed and treated at the HUCH hospitals of Meilahti and Peijas and in Hyvinkää, Länsi-Uusimaa, Lohja and Porvoo hospitals.

In addition to patients living in the HUCH area (Espoo, Helsinki, Kauniainen, Kerava, Kirkkonummi and Vantaa), the tasks of the HUCH Department of Urology include demanding urological procedures and specialist examinations and treatment in the HUCH specialist medical care area comprising the HUS area and the hospital districts of South Karelia and Kymenlaakso.

National responsibilities

Patients outside the HUCH specialist medical care area are referred to HUCH's Department of Urology for demanding surgical treatment of urethral stenosis, surgeries on large renal tumors invading the large vessel areas, kidney stone treatments (ESWL and endoscopic removal of large calculi in the renal pelvis) and robot-assisted urological endoscopic procedures.

Specialists employed at the Department of Urology participate in sex reassignment operations performed at the HUCH Department of Plastic Surgery and the follow-up of these patients.