Various cancers

Prostate cancer  

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Each year in Finland, over 1,000 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer. Treatment is determined separately in each case. Treatment methods include drug therapy and/or radiotherapy, active surveillance and surgery. 

Pancreatic cancer

Each year in Finland approximately 800 people are diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. In its early stages, pancreatic cancer causes few if any symptoms and is, therefore, often not diagnosed until it is relatively advanced. Treatment includes surgery, radiotherapy combined with cytotoxic drugs and cytotoxic chemotherapy. Pancreatic cancer usually refers to adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. The rare islet cell carcinoma is another form of pancreatic cancer.


Lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system originating in the lymph nodes or lymphatic tissue. It has two main types – Hodgkin’s lymphoma, which is cancer of the B lymphocytes, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, which is cancer of other parts of the lymphatic system. Treatments are undergoing continuous improvement and include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, other drug therapies, nuclear medicine techniques and stem cell transplantation (if the cancer recurs).

Lung cancer

Each year in Finland over 2,000 people are diagnosed with lung cancer. Smoking causes over 90% of lung cancers. Lung cancer is usually detected by X-ray. Treatments include chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy and a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
More information on lung cancer.

Thyroid cancer

Thyroid cancer is more common with women than with men. Approximately 350 new thyroid cancer cases are diagnosed each year in Finland. There are three subtypes of thyroid cancer based on the cytologic picture and behavioural differences. The treatment for thyroid cancer is thyroidectomy. Depending on the subtype, patients may also be treated using radioiodine therapy.

Testicular cancer

Testicular cancer is a rare disease diagnosed in approximately 120 men in Finland every year. There are two main subtypes of tumours – seminomas and non-seminomas. The main treatment for testicular cancer is surgical removal of the affected testicle.

Cervical cancer

Every year approximately 150 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer in Finland. It is usually detected during pelvic examinations and treated mainly by surgery. If the cancer has spread, treatment also includes radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

Cancer of the corpus uteri

Cancer of the corpus uteri or uterine cancer is the third most common cancer in women. Each year in Finland approximately 800 women are diagnosed with uterine cancer. The main treatment is the surgical removal of the womb and ovaries.

Gastric cancer

Gastric cancer begins in the glands lining the inner surface of the stomach. Every year in Finland approximately 700 people are diagnosed with stomach cancer. In its early stages, stomach cancer does not usually cause any symptoms. If the cancer has not spread, the main treatment is surgery. Chemotherapy is used to treat metastatic stomach cancer.


Every year in Finland approximately 1,000 people are diagnosed with malignant melanoma. The main treatment for melanoma is surgery, where some healthy tissue surrounding the affected site is also removed. 

Ovarian cancer

In its early stages, ovarian cancer does not cause any symptoms. The main treatment for ovarian cancer is surgery, which is complemented with chemotherapy when necessary. Every year in Finland, approximately 500 women are diagnosed with ovarian cancer.

Kidney cancer

Every year in Finland, approximately 700 new kidney cancer cases are diagnosed, mostly in men. The main treatment for kidney cancer is surgery. 

Bowel cancer

Bowel cancer begins in the glands lining the inner layer of the small or large intestine or rectum. In Finland, it is the third most common type of cancer after prostate and breast cancers. Tumours located in the lining of the intestinal wall are treated surgically.

Breast cancer

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Approximately 4,000 women get breast cancer in Finland each year. In most patients, breast cancer is local (a tumour in the breast with possible metastases in axillary lymph nodes) when it is first diagnosed. Local breast cancer can be cured and most patients recover completely. The main treatment is surgery. A surgically removed tumour is typed and adjuvant therapy (hormones, chemotherapy, anti-HER2 treatment) and radiotherapy are planned based on the results. Chemotherapy and anti-HER2 treatment are administered at the Department of Oncology’s outpatient clinic. Hormone treatment is initiated at the outpatient clinic or at the radiotherapy ward (when combined with radiotherapy).


Sarcomas begin in the bone or soft tissue. This is a very rare type of cancer, because in Finland, approximately 240 people are diagnosed with sarcomas each year. Treatment is planned separately in each case and may include surgery, drug therapy, radiotherapy or various combinations of these treatments.

Bladder cancer

Bladder cancer is more common in men than in women. Each year in Finland approximately 850 people are diagnosed with bladder cancer, and less than one in four are women. The clinical picture varies greatly, and therefore treatments are also variable. A total cystectomy is performed on approximately one in four patients.
More information on bladder cancer.