In addition to the care of newborns, the field of pediatrics includes the treatment of pediatric infectious diseases, renal diseases, organ transplantations, heart diseases, blood diseases and cancers. Children suffering from allergy, asthma and diabetes also constitute large patient groups.

All HUS hospital areas have pediatric units. Treatment of the most severely ill children is centralised at the New Children's Hospital, including the treatment of pediatric cardiac, transplantation and cancer patients.

Although the pediatric units treat children ranging in age from 0 to 15, the share of under 2-year-olds in inpatient treatment is notable, while in outpatient care, the age distribution is more even.